Nipe Nikupe: Dependency, Reciprocity, and Paradoxes of Food Aid in Lugufu
Refugee Camp Kigoma, Tanzania

  • Brian Hoyer
Keywords: Undergraduate research, Education abroad, Undergraduate research abroad, Tanzania

Abstract

This article presents an undergraduate student research project on dependency, reciprocity, and paradoxes of food aid in Lugufu Refugee Camp conducted on a study abroad program in Kigoma, Tanzania.

Downloads

Download data is not yet available.

Author Biography

Brian Hoyer

Brian Hoyer graduated with Honors from Middlebury College in February 2004, with a degree in International Studies (African Studies, Anthropology and the language of Kiswahili). In 2002, Brian participated in the School for International Training’s Development Studies Program at Makerere University in Kampala, Uganda. He created and was director of the Middlebury Refugee Camp Simulation. In his final year at Middlebury, he served as an Undergraduate Research Associate at the Rohatyn Center for International Affairs. Brian has worked extensively with refugee camps and resettlement agencies: near his hometown of Denver, Colorado, in Uganda and Tanzania. Brian currently is an International Associate and Associate of Emergency Response at an international humanitarian relief agency based in New York, where he has managed a medical assistance program to Northern Uganda, and coordinated medical aid to Southeast Asia after the Tsunami and, most recently, to the Gulf Coast after Hurricane Katrina.

References

Achebe, Chinua. 1963. No Longer at Ease. London: Heinemann Educational Books.

Bayart, Jean-François, with Stephen Ellis and Béatrice Hibou. 1999. The Criminalization of the State in Africa. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Berger, Jean-François, and Jean Milligan (eds). 2003. Red Cross Red Crescent Magazine, Issue 1.

Boyce, Hames K., and Betsy Hartmann. 1985. A Quiet Violence: Views from a Bangladesh Village. London: Zed Books Ltd; San Francisco, CA: Institute for Food and Development Policy.

Cabral, Amilcar. 1969. Revolution in Guinea. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Césaire, Aimé. 2000. Discourse on Colonialism (translated by Joa Pinkham). New York: Monthly Review Press.

Chabal, Patrick and Jean-Pascal Daloz. 1999. Africa Works: Disorder as Political Instrument. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Chrétien, Jean-Pierre. 2003. The Great Lakes of Africa: Two Thousand Years of History. New York: Zone Books.

Clifford, James and George E. Marcus (Eds.). 1986. Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Crow, Ben. 1990. Moving the Lever: a New Food Aid Imperialism? In Henry Bernsteir, et al. (Eds.), The Food Question: Profit versus People. New York: Monthly Review Press.

de Waal, Alex. 1997. Famine Crimes: Politics and the Disaster Relief Industry in Africa. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Eade, Deborah and Tony Jackson. 1982. Against the Grain. Oxford: Oxfam.

Fanon, Frantz. 1963. The Wretched of the Earth. New York: Grove Press, Inc.

Freedman, Jim (Ed.). 2000. Transforming Development: Foreign Aid for a Changing World. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.

Friedmann, Harriet. 1990. The Origins of Third World Food Dependence. In Henry Bernsteir, et al. (Eds), The Food Question: Profit versus People. pp. 13–31. New York: Monthly Review Press.

Hardin, Garrett. Lifeboat Ethics: A Malthusian View. In Ingolf Vogeler and Anthony de Souza, (Eds.), Dialectics of Third World Development. Montclair: NJ: Allanheld.

Hochschild, Adam. 1998. King Leopold’s Ghost. New York: Houghton Mifflin Company.

Hyndman, Jennifer. 2000. Managing Displacement: Refugees and the Politics of Humanitarianism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.

Ignatieff, Michael. 1985. The Needs of Strangers. New York: Viking.

Jackson, Robert H. and Carl G. Rosberg. 1998. Personal Rule: Theory and Practice. In Peter Lewis (Ed.), Africa: Dilemmas of Development and Change. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Katunga, John and Celine Moyroud. 2002 Coltan Exploration in Eastern Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). In Jeremy Lind and Kathryn Sturman (Eds.), Scarcity and Surfeit. pp. 159–184. Pretoria, South Africa: Institute for Security Studies.

Lancaster, Carol. 1999. Aid to Africa. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Loescher, Gil. 1993. Beyond Charity: International Cooperation and the Global Refugee Crisis. New York: Oxford University Press.

Loomba, Ania. 1998. Colonialism/Postcolonialism. London: Routledge.

Lubkemann, Stephen C. 2002. Refugees: Worldwide Displacement and International Response. Anthronotes 23:1–19.

MacGaffey, Janet and Rémy Bazenguissa-Ganga. 2000. Congo-Paris: Transnational Traders on the Margins of the Law. Bloomington, IN: Indiana University Press.

Malkki, Liisa H. 1995. Purity and Exile: Violence and National Cosmology among Hutu Refugees in Tanzania. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Mamdani, Mahmood. 2001. When Victims Become Killers: Colonialism, Nativism, and the Genocide in Rwanda. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Mamdani, Mahmood. 1996. Citizen and Subject: Contemporary Africa and the Legacy of Late Colonialism. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Maren, Michael. 1997. The Road to Hell: The Ravaging Effects of Foreign Aid and International Charity. New York: The Free Press.

Mauss, Marcel 1950. The Gift: The Form and Reason for Exchange in Archaic Societies. London: W.W. Norton.

Napier, David 2003. The Age of Immunology: Conceiving a Future in an Alienating World. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Nkrumah, Kwame 1967. Challenge of the Congo. New York: International Publishers.

Nzongola-Ntalaja, Georges. 2002 The Congo from Leopold to Kabila. London: Zed Books.

Pottier, Johan 1996 Relief and Repatriation: Views by Rwandan Refugees; Lessons for Humanitarian Aid Workers. African Affairs 95:403–429.

Raffer, Kunibert and H.W. Singer. 1996. The Foreign Aid Business. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Reno, William. 1998 Warlord Politics and African States. Boulder, CO: Lynne Rienner Publishers.

Sen, Amartya. 1999 Development as Freedom. New York: Anchor Books.

Shillington, Kevin. 1995. History of Africa Rev. ed, London: Macmillan.

Sommers, Marc. 2001. Fear in Bongoland: Burundian Refugees in Urban Tanzania. New York: Berghagn Books.

Sommers, Marc. 2001. Young, Male and Pentecostal: Urban Refugees in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Journal of Refugee Studies 14:347–370.

Terry, Fiona. 2002 Condemned to Repeat? The Paradox of Humanitarian Action. Ithaca, NY: Cornell Univeristy Press.

Thompson, Paul B. 1992 The Ethics of Aid and Trade. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Tull, Denis M. 2003. A Reconfiguration of Political Order? The State of the State in North Kivu (DR Congo). African Affairs 102:429–446.

Uvin, Peter. 1992. Regime, Surplus, and Self-Interest: The International Politics of Food Aid. International Studies Quarterly 36:293–312.

Valentine, David E. 2002. The Refugee: A Discourse on Displacement. In Exotic No More. Jeremy MacClancy (Ed.), Pp. 270–286. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Waters, Tony. 2001. Bureaucratizing the Good Samaritan: the Limitations to Humanitarian Relief Operation. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Whitaker, Beth Elise. 2002. Refugees in Western Tanzania: The Distribution of Burdens and Benefits Among Local Hosts. Journal of Refugee Studies 155(4):339–358.
Published
2005-11-15
How to Cite
Hoyer, B. (2005). Nipe Nikupe: Dependency, Reciprocity, and Paradoxes of Food Aid in Lugufu
Refugee Camp Kigoma, Tanzania. Frontiers: The Interdisciplinary Journal of Study Abroad, 12(1), 31-54. https://doi.org/10.36366/frontiers.v12i1.179

Most read articles by the same author(s)